What is IoT – Internet of Things

In this article, we will learn about today's most trending word IoT (Internet of Things). My motive is to explain IoT concepts in simple language so everyone can understand and clear the confusion about the question of what really IoT means, let's start now

What is IoT?

IoT Stands for the Internet of things which is a network of internet-connected hardware devices that gives some insightful information about things such as a car, bike, truck, factory, etc.

What is the Use of IoT?

You might be heard the word digital and smart multiple times such as digital services or smart cities etc. the most real-time example of Indian prime minister Narendra Modi who always talks about digital India and smart cities.

So, what means digital, the digital is nothing but the access of the services to the individual over the internet in the form of a web application, mobile application, etc. which help to minimize the presence of humans at a particular facility center to avail the service and get work done from the location where the person resides with the help of a mobile app or web application. The example of digital payment platforms such as BHIM UPI by prime minister Narendra Modi Indian government, Phone Pay, Google Pay, Amazon Pay etc.

A smart city is also a part of digital service in which citizens can see the temperature, humidity of their cities and it automatically generates alerts to their citizens regarding sudden change in environment and to take specific precautions, even citizens can track the live location of specific bus routes so he or she can plan accordingly. Streetlight management is another example of smart city service in which streetlight automatically manages by digital service which is responsible to turn on or off lights based on surrounding visibility, generates alerts if any light bulb got a problem and servicemen can fix it immediately.

The preceding explained scenarios are just a few examples and to facilitate and enhance the digital and smart services IoT plays an important role to give meaning to the services which collect the data and generate meaningful and actionable alerts.

Benefits of IoT

Consider just one of the scenarios which I have explained in the preceding paragraphs, let’s assume we have implemented smart streetlight management using IoT, the benefits are

  • Monitor the network of streetlights at one place using the web application or mobile application
  • Turn on or off the lights automatically based on the surrounding visibility such as sunrise and sunset which help to save the huge amount of electricity consummation
  • Consider some lights are got off due to some problem then IoT generates the alert with detailed reasoning which help servicemen to fix it immediately without going in person at the site

By considering the preceding few examples you can imagine how IoT helps to give meaning to these things which saves time, cost, and effort. The IoT will play a very important role in shaping the future of the world in the coming few years we will see the IoT in everything which will make human life much easier and faster. Typical raw IoT device will be look like as follows

How IoT works?

To understand how IoT works, understand the following basic terminology of IoT

  • Things
  • Device
  • Sensor
  • Network
  • IoT Gateway
  • Communication Protocol
  • Things


Any surrounded objects around us which we are using in our daily life such as cars, trucks or any vehicle, water taps, pumps, machines, houses, factories or room, ac, fan, etc.


The device is the hardware that is installed on the things to get the data


The sensor is situated on the device to monitor the intended information such as temperature, speed, humidity, visibility, etc.


  • Temperature and humidity sensor
  • Pressure sensor
  • Visibility sensor
  • Magnetometer sensor
  • Accelerometer sensor
  • Network


The network is the way of communication that how device sensors and data collection platforms have connected each other such as via Bluetooth, LAN, Wi-Fi, WAN, Internet, etc.

IoT Gateway

The IoT gateway is the platform or mediator between devices to cloud or cloud to device communication which is responsible for collecting the messages from IoT devices and sending messages back to the devices.

The IoT gateway provides the features to collect and process the IoT device's data and upgrade the IoT devices. following are some example of commonly used IoT gateways

  • Microsoft Azure IoT
  • AWS IoT
  • Google IoT Cloud
  • Amazon IoT
Communication Protocol

The communication protocols are the medium which are responsible for establishing the communication between IoT devices and IoT gateways to send and receive messages between them. Examples of most used protocols are
  • AMQP
  • MQTT
  • Https
  • TCP
  • UDP
  • DDS
  • XMPP
  • LwM2M
  • ZigBee
The following diagram explains the IoT and it's working with a clear picture
In the preceding diagram in the first frame, there are the things which are connected with the IoT devices and sensors then they generate the data and sends to the IoT gateway with the help of secure communication protocol then data sends for the processing to get the insights and show the data on front end applications in the form of a web or mobile applications.


Hope from the above explanation you came to know about the IoT and you have a clear picture in your mind what exactly means the Internet of Things. If you have any suggestions or feedback then please contact me.

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